Get Connected:


Manuscript Specifications

Submission components must be uploaded through our web-based tracking system. Log on to to register and begin the online submission process. All manuscripts should include the following components:

Title. Titles should be concise (fewer than 10 words) and stimulate reader interest.

Title page. Should include the following information:

  • the complete manuscript title and running title
  • the full names of each author, followed by their highest academic degree
  • the name, address, telephone, fax, and e-mail information of the corresponding author
  • the institutional affiliations for each author at the time the work was completed
  • indication of the source of funding (including grant numbers, grant agencies, corporations, or sponsors)
  • the number of pages, references, figures, and tables
  • a word count (excluding references, tables, and figures)

Abstract. An abstract is required for all manuscript submissions. The abstract should not exceed 250 words and should consist of 5 paragraphs entitled: Objective, Study Design, Methods, Results, and Conclusions.

Text. All text should be double-spaced, including the acknowledgments, references, tables, and legends (see "Manuscript Preparation" section for length restrictions). Cite references, tables, and figures in sequential order in the body of the paper. Any abbreviation or acronym must be spelled out in full when it first appears in the text, followed by its abbreviation in parentheses per American Medical Association (AMA) style. State the generic name (not the trade name) for all pharmaceutical products.

References. It is the responsibility of the authors to complete and verify all references. References should conform to the AMA Manual of Style.2 Cite references in the text sequentially as a superscripted number after any punctuation mark. Two references are cited separated by a comma, with no space. Three or more consecutive references are given as a range with a hyphen.

**If a referencing program has been used during the drafting of the manuscript (eg, EndNote or Reference Manager), please disable before submitting.** 

Per AMA style, number references sequentially in the order they appear in the text (do not alphabetize author names). Identify references with superscript Arabic numerals. References cited only in tables or figures should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first mention of that particular table or figure in the text. Begin the reference list on a new page. List all authors and/or editors up to 6; if more than 6, list the first 3 followed by "et al." Journal references should include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Journal names should be abbreviated according to the journal's list in PubMed.

References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as "in press" and included in the reference section. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source. (Include copies of any "in press" and "submitted" manuscripts [ie, papers under consideration at other journals] for the editors' evaluation as part of your submission.) Avoid citing "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person, his or her degree, and the date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. Authors should obtain written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication (see "Permissions" section). In text, do not use footnotes; instead include them in parentheses in the body of the manuscript. (Footnotes should only be used in tables and figures)

Reference Style Samples: 

1. Garber A, Goldman DP, Jena AB. The promise of health care cost containment. Health Aff (Millwood). 2007;26(6):1545-1547.

2. Wynia MK, Schwab AP. The value equation: the decision-making process should be sensitive to value. In: Ensuring Fairness in Health Care Coverage: An Employer's Guide to Making Good Decisions on Tough Issues. New York, NY: AMACOM; 2007:131-149.

3. The Commonwealth Fund Commission on a High Performance Health System. Why not the best? Results from a national scorecard on U.S. health system performance. Published September 2006. Accessed November 13, 2006.

Graphic Elements. Judicious use of graphic elements (tables/figures) is strongly encouraged, as space in the Journal is limited. The Journal will print only essential tables and figures (no more than 5 combined graphic elements).

Tables. Place each table on a new page. Number all tables sequentially in the order they are cited in the text. Include a title for each table. All acronyms must be defined at the bottom of the table. Footnotes should be identified using superscript letters a, b, c (not asterisks or special symbols) and explained in a footnote to the table. Please submit tables in an editable format, ie, Word of Excel (not as picture).

Figures. Place each figure on a new page. Figures are generally redrawn by our production team. Avoid the use of shading in bar graphs or pie charts (use color or crosshatch patterns instead). Number all figures sequentially in the order they are cited in the text. Include a title for each figure. All acronyms must be defined at the bottom of the figure. Footnotes should be identified using superscript letters a, b, c (not asterisks or special symbols) and explained in a footnote. Any previously published figures must be accompanied by written permission from the publisher and/or copyright holder (see "Permissions" section).

Supplemental data (eg, appendices and/or lengthy tables) will be posted "as is" on the Journal's website at the time of publication. Authors should indicate what material is intended for supplemental content and include the appropriate reference or callout in the text to these elements.


Data and/or figures reproduced from another published source must be properly cited and acknowledged. Authors are required to obtain written permission from the appropriate author and/or copyright holder to reproduce previously published or copyrighted material. Authors must also obtain permission from at least 1 author when citing unpublished data, "in-press" articles, and/or personal communications. Copies of permission statements should be uploaded with manuscript submissions.

Most Popular